Define multimorbidity as it relates to older patients.
Aging in humans is associated with which of the following changes in cardiovascular function?
A. Decreased blood pressure
B. Increased pulse pressure
C. Decreased total peripheral resistance
D. Increased pulse wave velocity
Which of the following responses are decreased in older patients?
B. Beta adrenergic blockade
C. Beta adrenergic stimulation
D. Muscarinic cholinergic inhibition
Which of the following is the most marked and consistent change in drug clearance and elimination with aging?
A. Decreased phase 1 CYP3A mediated drug metabolism
B. Decreased renal drug elimination
C. Increased phase 2 drug glucuronidation
D. Increased drug acetylation
A 72-year-old woman weighs 105 pounds (48 kg) and has serum creatinine of 0.9 mg/dL. What is the estimated renal glomerular filtration rate calculated using the Cockcroft Gault equation?
Describe changes in body composition that occur in older as compared to younger individuals.
Which of the following drug effects can impair functional status in older individuals?
A. Blood pressure lowering
C. Gastric acid inhibition
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